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PhD Defence: Humaira Kamal Pasha

Published on June 21, 2021 Updated on June 21, 2021
Le 28 June 2021 De 10:00 à 13:00

Women Empowerment, Economic Welfare and Gender Differences in Education Attainment in Pakistan


  • Azomahou Théophile, Professor, Directeur, African Economic Research Consortium
  • Pham Thi Kim Cuong, Professor, Université de Nanterre
  • Mohnen Pierre, Professor, Maastricht University
  • Motel-Combes Pascale, Professor, Université Clermont Auvergne
  • Yitbarek Eleni, Senior Lecturer, University of Pretoria
  • Brun Jean-François, Associate Professor, Université Clermont Auvergne


The impact of education and gender discrimination are the main objectives of this thesis in the perspective of Sustainable Development Goals including women empowerment, welfare and economic development (Envision 2030). It is important to examine that education investment and provision of basic human rights with equal distribution of the resources should consign without gender discrimination. This thesis provides empirical evidence to assess the impact of female human capital on economic welfare, empowerment and gender difference in determination of education achievement in Pakistan. The first chapter introduces the education and economic development in theoretical and factual practices towards females. It elaborates in detail about the educational system, reforms and commission from inception to date with the status of the females in the Pakistani society. It links the connection between gender discrimination, welfare and empowerment provided with theoretical evidences. The second chapter explores the relationship of the education attainment with the women empowerment in the household decision-making in monetary and non-monetary aspects relying on the survey data of the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement. Evidence has shown that education has positive and significant impact to increase the empowerment in household decision-making and provides an optimal solution in restricted areas of the country. Meanwhile, the joint decision-making is appropriate than unitary one in the household expenditure, marriage and family planning, however, it is the opposite for son preference. Women in wealthier families are more likely to empower with education as compared to poor families, while, this impact varies by age and provinces. Furthermore, the study suggests public and community intervention from subsidizing schooling to provision of contraceptive at a lower cost. The third chapter focuses on the single females whether never married, widows and divorced, and their contribution with socio-economic background in improving economic welfare of the household. With the help of multilevel model regression, it is analyzed that education of the single females has a significant impact on the household’s welfare. Eventually, widows and divorced ones contribute higher than never married females once they are acquainted with education. Evidences are provided of wider disparities between households as compared to within household. The fourth chapter determines the education attainment and current enrollment in the framework of gender difference with income per capita and socioeconomic characteristics of the household, as well as, it attempts to capture the potential endogeneity between income and education. It also explores the effects of gender differences within the household by gender and educational inequalities. The findings provide strong evidence of gender differences in education attainment and current enrollment with income and socioeconomic characteristics. In addition, educational inequalities and gender gap highly likely to decrease girls’ education and income of the household respectively. Meanwhile, Oaxaca type decomposition provides higher percentage of unexplained variations. I find evidence of transitional gap from lower to higher education attainment, while, personal and household attribute play differently with gender in current enrollment. It emphasizes on reforming educational and public policies according to the demand of education, economic condition, and treatment towards children particularly with girls in the household.


Education attainment, Women empowerment, Economic welfare and development, Gender differences, Non-linear models, Reverse Causality.